Special Precautions Certificate Required?
 Yellow Fever Yes 1
 Cholera Yes 2
 Typhoid and Polio Yes N/A
 Malaria No N/A

1 : A yellow fever vaccination certificate is required from travellers arriving within 6 days from infected areas (children under 1 year are exempt.)

2 : Following WHO guidelines issued in 1973, a cholera vaccination certificate is no longer a condition of entry to Kazakhstan. However, cholera is a serious risk in this country and precautions are essential. Up-to-date advice should be sought before deciding whether these precautions should include vaccination as medical opinion is divided over its effectiveness. See the Health appendix for further information.

Food & drink : All water should be regarded as being a potential health risk. Water used for drinking, brushing teeth or making ice should have first been boiled or otherwise sterilised. Milk is pasteurised and dairy products are safe for consumption. Only eat well-cooked meat and fish, preferably served hot. Pork, salad and mayonnaise may carry increased risk. Vegetables should be cooked and fruit peeled.

Other risks : Hepatitis A, B and E occur. Diphtheria outbreaks have been reported in the area. Giardiasis, echinococcosis, typhus (tick-borne), Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, trechinellosis, leishmaniasis and brucellosis can also occur. Foci of plague exist although rare. There is some presence of Rabies. For those at high risk, vaccination before arrival should be considered. If you are bitten, seek medical advice without delay. For more information, consult the Health appendix.

Note : Foreign visitors (except nationals of CIS countries) staying in Kazakhstan for longer than 3 months may be required to take an AIDS test.

Health care : There is a large network of hospitals, emergency centres and pharmacies. The largest include the Central Hospital, the Maternity and Childhood Institute Clinic and the Medical Teaching Institute Clinic in Almaty, and the Spinal Centre and Hospital of Rehabilitation Treatment in Karaganda. However, standards within the public healthcare system have declined significantly since the Soviet era. It is hard to ascertain the level of expertise of the doctors, and visitors cannot rely on the availability of western medicines. Medical insurance is strongly recommended and should include medevac insurance.

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