Turkmenistan shares borders with
Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan and Iran. To
the west is the Caspian Sea. Nearly 80 per cent of the country is
taken up by the Kara-Kum (Black Sand) Desert, the largest in the CIS.
Turkmenistan’s tourist trade is relatively undeveloped.
Almost all the attractions lie around the fringes of the desert and in
oases. The capital, Ashgabat, on the southern rim of the Kara-Kum
Desert, is a modern city. It replaced the one founded in 1881, which
was destroyed in an earthquake in 1948. The Sunday market in Ashgabat
is the best place anywhere to buy Turkmen carpets. Mary, due east of
Ashgabat, is Turkmenistan’s second city. It lies near the remains of
the city of Merv, which was once the second city of Islam until
Ghengis Khan’s son Toloi reduced it to rubble, killing many
inhabitants in 1221. Plov - pronounced ‘plo’ - is the staple food for
everyday and celebrations and consists of chunks of mutton, shredded
yellow turnip and rice fried in a large wok. Ashgabat has an opera and
ballet theatre, which shows both Russian and European works and a
488,100 sq km (188,456 sq miles).
4,737,000 (official estimate 2000).,
Population Density :
9.7 per sq km.
Ashgabat. Population: 605,000
(official estimate 1999).
Turkmenistan shares borders with
Kazakhstan to the north, Uzbekistan to the east, Afghanistan to
the southeast and Iran to the south. To the west is the
Caspian Sea. Nearly 80 per cent of the country is taken up by the
Kara-Kum (Black Sand) Desert, the largest in the CIS. The longest
irrigation canal in the world stretches 1100km (687 miles), from the
Amu-Darya River in the east, through Ashgabat, before being piped the
rest of the way to the Caspian Sea.
Republic. Gained independence from
the Soviet Union in 1991. Head of State and Government :
President Saparmyrat Nyyazow (Türkmenbashy) since 1992.
Turkmen is the official state
language, and is closer to Turkish, Azeri and Crimean Tartar than
those of its neighbours Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. The Turkmen script
was changed from Latin to Cyrillic in 1940, but the process of
changing back to the Turkish version of the Latin script is underway.
Predominantly Sunni Muslim with a
small Russian Orthodox minority. Turkmenistan shares the Central Asian
GMT + 5.
220 volts AC, 50Hz. Round
two-pin continental plugs are standard.
Country code: 993. Area code for Ashgabat: 12.
Outgoing international code: 810.
Mobile telephone :
GSM 900 network covers Ashgabat area. Operated
Services are available in
the main hotels for residents only.
Turkemenistan Online (website :
Services are available from post offices in
Letters to Western Europe and the USA can take between 2 weeks and 2
months. Stamped envelopes can be bought from post offices. Mail
addresses should be laid out in the following order: country,
postcode, city, street, house number and lastly the person’s name.
Post office hours: Mon-Fri 0900-1800. The main Post Office in Ashgabat
is open until 1900.
The press in Turkmenistan is still censored. The main newspapers in
Ashgabat are Turkmenistan and Vatan (both in Turkmen) and Neitralnyi
Service (website :
and Voice of America (website:
can be received. From time to time the frequencies change and the most
up-to-date can be found online.